This paper reviews the most recent refinements of the Human Development Index (HDI) as a simple tool for assessment and international comparison of national achievements in three dimensions of human development - long and healthy life, knowledge and living standard. It also examines two new measurement introduced that seek to capture and quantify the effects of inequality in the society on the level of human development. In particular, we review the Inequality-adjusted HDI, which captures disparities across people in the dimensions measured by the HDI, and the new Gender Inequality Index. Finally the paper outlines priorities for enhancing the measurement of human development.
Keywords: Human development index; Inequality-adjusted HDI; Gender inequality index
Biography: Jeni Klugman is the Director of Human Development Report Office, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Before joining UNDP, Jeni had a diverse career at the World Bank and has worked with the Australian government, UNICEF and other development agencies.
She has had a number of books, articles, and reports published, on topics ranging from poverty and poverty reduction strategies to health reform, education and decentralization. Jeni holds a PhD in Economics from the Australian National University. She also has an M.Sc in Development Economics, as well as a graduate law degree, from Oxford University where she was a Rhodes Scholar.
Jeni was the lead author of the Human Development Report (HDR) 2009 and the latest HDR 2010 which is the flagship publication of UNDP. The 2010 Report features a thorough review of 40 years of Human Development Index and new complementary indices measuring inequality, gender disparities and extreme poverty.