FAO has been promoting Agricultural Census worldwide from the last 80 years. Several methodologies, concepts and definitions were used from there by more than 100 countries. The 2010 Programme recommends a modular approach. This approach includes a core module with a complete enumeration where limited number of key data items are collected from the population census whenever possible and supplementary modules collected by sampling methods in the agricultural census. The approach seems very effective to rationalize costs in countries with limited resources such as developing countries.[br]Mozambique applied this modular approach during its last agricultural and livestock census together with the use of advanced technology for data collection and processing. This included the field data collection using a laptop computer, the measurement of parcels of holdings and their location through handheld GPS (geo-referencing) and the data transmission for analysis and consistency checks done immediately after the data capture benefiting of the 3G technology.[br]These experiences, as well as the lessons learned from Mozambique experience will be presented and described in this paper.